Diversity of mosquito species (Diptera: Culicidae) in three ecosystems from the Colombian Andes: identification through DNA barcoding and adult morphology

"The dissertation is an analytical review of the available literature on marine protected areas (MPAs) to propose some governance, and spatial management mechanisms in the Colombian CaribbeanAbstract: The family Culicidae contains approximately 3,500 species of mosquitoes distributed over a div...

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Detalles Bibliográficos
Autor Principal: Rozo López, Paula Camila
Formato: Trabajo de grado (Bachelor Thesis)
Lenguaje:Desconocido (Unknown)
Publicado: 2014
Materias:
Acceso en línea:http://babel.banrepcultural.org/cdm/ref/collection/p17054coll23/id/887
Descripción
Sumario:"The dissertation is an analytical review of the available literature on marine protected areas (MPAs) to propose some governance, and spatial management mechanisms in the Colombian CaribbeanAbstract: The family Culicidae contains approximately 3,500 species of mosquitoes distributed over a diverse range of habitats around the world. Mosquito identification has been traditionally conducted with morphological features; however, the development of molecular techniques, such as DNA-barcoding, provides opportunities for gaining higher resolution in species determination. Colombia, one of the world's megadiverse countries, has a highly diverse mosquito fauna and a high prevalence of mosquito-borne diseases. In order to provide relevant information about the diversity and taxonomy of mosquito species in Colombia, this research tests the usefulness of combining adult morphology and barcode sequences to identify and describe mosquito species collected over different gradients in the Departments of Antioquia and Caldas. A total of 22 different mosquito species from eight genera were identified. One of the species, Wyeomyia luteoventralis, is the first record for Colombia. A total of 77 barcode sequences were generated with 16 species submitted as new records for public databases. These sequences were compared with the identification systems of existing DNA barcode databases (BOLD and GenBank through BLAST), to evaluate performance to discriminate mosquito specimens. We also validated the usefulness of DNA barcodes across a greater geographical area by compiling 1,292 sequences of mosquito species listed for the Neotropics and using two tree-based methods (neighbor-joining and maximum likelihood). Both methodologies provided similar results by showing 105 of 133 total species of mosquitoes separated into distinct clusters. Additionally, to provide the most up-to-date list of mosquito species for Colombia, a systematic review was complied which includes 329 species from 28 genera. This work shows the importance of combining and integrating methodologies to accurately identify diversity of mosquitoes. Resumen: La familia Culicidae contiene aproximadamente 3.500 especies de mosquitos distribuidas en una amplia gama de hábitats en todo el mundo. Tradicionalmente, la identificación de mosquitos se ha llevado a cabo con características morfológicas; sin embargo, el desarrollo de técnicas moleculares, como los códigos de barras de ADN, brinda la oportunidad de obtener una mayor resolución en la determinación de especies. Colombia, uno de los países megadiversos del mundo, tiene una diversa fauna de mosquitos y una alta prevalencia de enfermedades transmitidas por mosquitos. Con el fin de proporcionar información relevante sobre la diversidad y taxonomía de las especies de mosquitos en Colombia, esta investigación prueba la utilidad de combinar la morfología adulta y las secuencias de códigos de barras para identificar y describir las especies de mosquitos recolectados en diferentes gradientes en los departamentos de Antioquia y Caldas. En total, se identificaron 22 especies diferentes de mosquitos de ocho géneros. Una de las especies, Wyeomyia luteoventralis, es el primer registro para Colombia. Se generaron un total de 77 secuencias de códigos de barras con 16 especies presentadas como nuevos registros para bases de datos públicas. Estas secuencias se compararon con los sistemas de identificación de las bases de datos de códigos de barras de ADN existentes (BOLD y GenBank a través de BLAST), para evaluar el rendimiento para discriminar especímenes de mosquitos. También validamos la utilidad de los códigos de barras de ADN en un área geográfica mayor al compilar 1.292 secuencias de especies de mosquitos reportadas para el neotrópico y el uso de dos métodos basados en árboles (NJ y ML). Ambas metodologías proporcionaron resultados similares al mostrar 105 de 133 especies de mosquitos separadas en grupos distintos. Además, para proporcionar la lista más actualizada de especies de mosquitos para Colombia, se cumplió una revisión sistemática que incluye 329 especies de 28 géneros. Este trabajo muestra la importancia de combinar e integrar metodologías para identificar con precisión la diversidad de mosquitos. Sea, particularly in the Seaflower MPA. The Seaflower MPA is facing several challenges regarding political issues of boundary disputes and also adverse impacts on the marine environment from the increase in shipping activities. This is largely due to the expansion of the Panama Canal and the possible Nicaragua Canal, which is increasing the maritime traffic of international shipping to almost double that of today. In addition, the increase in seabed activities is also a threat to the ecosystems within it. This research describes the Colombian framework of MPAs, and it also shows the issues that face the Seaflower MPA today. The aim is to propose and to recommend some governance and management measures based on the ecosystem-based approach to establish a transboundary agreement keeping the integrity of the MPA and giving regional relevance for the protection of the unique ecosystems. Furthermore, to address the issues of negative impacts from shipping, some protective measures have to be taken to protect the ecosystems and safe navigation guaranteeing long-term sustainable development. "