Autoimmune thyroid disease in euthyroid subjects

OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of thyroid autoantibodies and the associated factors in euthyroid subjects. METHODS: In this study, 300 euthyroid subjects chosen by stratified sampling from an inception cohort of 1335 individuals were included. None of the subjects was under treatment. Thyr...

Descripción completa

Detalles Bibliográficos
Autor Principal: Rodríguez, Yhojan
Otros Autores: Ramirez-Santana, Carolina
Formato: Trabajo de grado (Bachelor Thesis)
Lenguaje:Español (Spanish)
Publicado: Universidad del Rosario 2018
Materias:
Acceso en línea:http://repository.urosario.edu.co/handle/10336/18449
id ir-10336-18449
recordtype dspace
institution EdocUR - Universidad del Rosario
collection DSpace
language Español (Spanish)
topic Euthyroidism
Anti-peroxidase autoantibodies
Anti-thyroglobulin autoantibodies
Autoimmune thyroid disease
Anatomía humana, citología, histología
Tiroides
Tiroglobulina
Autoanticuerpos
spellingShingle Euthyroidism
Anti-peroxidase autoantibodies
Anti-thyroglobulin autoantibodies
Autoimmune thyroid disease
Anatomía humana, citología, histología
Tiroides
Tiroglobulina
Autoanticuerpos
Rodríguez, Yhojan
Autoimmune thyroid disease in euthyroid subjects
description OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of thyroid autoantibodies and the associated factors in euthyroid subjects. METHODS: In this study, 300 euthyroid subjects chosen by stratified sampling from an inception cohort of 1335 individuals were included. None of the subjects was under treatment. Thyroid function was evaluated by measuring serum levels of TSH (0.3-4.5 μIU / ml) and FT4 (5.2-12.7μg / dl). In addition, anti-peroxidase (TPOAbs), anti-thyroglobulin (TgAbs), and anti-TSH receptor (TrAbs) autoantibodies were evaluated together with other 23 autoantibodies and vitamin D levels. The analysis included sociodemographic, clinical, and environmental characteristics. Data were analyzed by chi-square (χ2), Kruskal-Wallis, Mann-Whitney and logistical regression tests. RESULTS: Thyroid autoimmunity was observed in 15.3% of the subjects (TPOAbs in 11.3% and TgAbs in 2%). In six individuals, both autoantibodies were positive. TrAbs were not detected in any individual. Familial thyroid disease (P = 0.021,  = 3.4 CI: 1.2 – 9.5), low libido (P = 0.013,  = 3.8 CI: 1.3 – 10.6), the presence of other ADs (P = 0.014,  = 10.8 CI: 1.6 – 72.9) were associated with thyroid autoantibodies. In addition, VitD insufficiency (P= 0.03), never smoke (P = 0.010,  = 6.9 CI: 1.6 – 30.4), drinking more than 4 cups of coffee (P = 0.036,  = 3.8 CI: 1.1 – 13.1), and higher number of years exposed to wood smoke (P = 0.04), were associated with thyroid autoantibodies. Similar the last analysis, the presence of TPOAbs was associated with familial thyroid disease (P = 0.003,  = 4.9 CI: 1.7 - 14.0), never smoke (P = 0.002,  = 5.7 CI: 1.4 - 21.0), drinking > 4 cups of coffee (P = 0.047,  = 3.6 CI: 1.1 - 13.1), low libido (P = 0.001,  = 5.7 CI: 2.0 - 16.3). In addition, the presence of SS-A / Ro52 (P = 0.009,  = 36.7 CI: 2.5 - 549.9), and Ku (P = 0.046,  = 10.2 CI: 1.1 - 100.7), also was related to these autoantibodies. Regarding TgAbs, the presence of African ancestry (P = 0.01,  = 10.5 CI: 1.7 – 63.2), SS-A / Ro52 (P = 0.03,  = 15.8 CI: 1.2 – 198.6), and CENP-B (P = 0.02,  = 31.2 CI: 1.8 – 565.9) was associated with TgAbs. CONCLUSIONS: Subclinical thyroid autoimmunity is not rare. Environmental, genetic, and immunological factors as well as ancestry are associated risk factors. These results will facilitate the implementation of screening strategies in order to provide timely diagnosis and treatment.
author2 Ramirez-Santana, Carolina
author_facet Ramirez-Santana, Carolina
Rodríguez, Yhojan
format Trabajo de grado (Bachelor Thesis)
author Rodríguez, Yhojan
author_sort Rodríguez, Yhojan
title Autoimmune thyroid disease in euthyroid subjects
title_short Autoimmune thyroid disease in euthyroid subjects
title_full Autoimmune thyroid disease in euthyroid subjects
title_fullStr Autoimmune thyroid disease in euthyroid subjects
title_full_unstemmed Autoimmune thyroid disease in euthyroid subjects
title_sort autoimmune thyroid disease in euthyroid subjects
publisher Universidad del Rosario
publishDate 2018
url http://repository.urosario.edu.co/handle/10336/18449
_version_ 1645140971664441344
spelling ir-10336-184492019-09-19T12:37:54Z Autoimmune thyroid disease in euthyroid subjects Rodríguez, Yhojan Ramirez-Santana, Carolina Molano-González, Nicolas Anaya, Juan-Manuel Rojas, Manuel Monsalve, Diana M. Acosta-Ampudia, Yeny Pacheco, Yovana Rodríguez Jiménez, Mónica Euthyroidism Anti-peroxidase autoantibodies Anti-thyroglobulin autoantibodies Autoimmune thyroid disease Anatomía humana, citología, histología Tiroides Tiroglobulina Autoanticuerpos OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of thyroid autoantibodies and the associated factors in euthyroid subjects. METHODS: In this study, 300 euthyroid subjects chosen by stratified sampling from an inception cohort of 1335 individuals were included. None of the subjects was under treatment. Thyroid function was evaluated by measuring serum levels of TSH (0.3-4.5 μIU / ml) and FT4 (5.2-12.7μg / dl). In addition, anti-peroxidase (TPOAbs), anti-thyroglobulin (TgAbs), and anti-TSH receptor (TrAbs) autoantibodies were evaluated together with other 23 autoantibodies and vitamin D levels. The analysis included sociodemographic, clinical, and environmental characteristics. Data were analyzed by chi-square (χ2), Kruskal-Wallis, Mann-Whitney and logistical regression tests. RESULTS: Thyroid autoimmunity was observed in 15.3% of the subjects (TPOAbs in 11.3% and TgAbs in 2%). In six individuals, both autoantibodies were positive. TrAbs were not detected in any individual. Familial thyroid disease (P = 0.021,  = 3.4 CI: 1.2 – 9.5), low libido (P = 0.013,  = 3.8 CI: 1.3 – 10.6), the presence of other ADs (P = 0.014,  = 10.8 CI: 1.6 – 72.9) were associated with thyroid autoantibodies. In addition, VitD insufficiency (P= 0.03), never smoke (P = 0.010,  = 6.9 CI: 1.6 – 30.4), drinking more than 4 cups of coffee (P = 0.036,  = 3.8 CI: 1.1 – 13.1), and higher number of years exposed to wood smoke (P = 0.04), were associated with thyroid autoantibodies. Similar the last analysis, the presence of TPOAbs was associated with familial thyroid disease (P = 0.003,  = 4.9 CI: 1.7 - 14.0), never smoke (P = 0.002,  = 5.7 CI: 1.4 - 21.0), drinking > 4 cups of coffee (P = 0.047,  = 3.6 CI: 1.1 - 13.1), low libido (P = 0.001,  = 5.7 CI: 2.0 - 16.3). In addition, the presence of SS-A / Ro52 (P = 0.009,  = 36.7 CI: 2.5 - 549.9), and Ku (P = 0.046,  = 10.2 CI: 1.1 - 100.7), also was related to these autoantibodies. Regarding TgAbs, the presence of African ancestry (P = 0.01,  = 10.5 CI: 1.7 – 63.2), SS-A / Ro52 (P = 0.03,  = 15.8 CI: 1.2 – 198.6), and CENP-B (P = 0.02,  = 31.2 CI: 1.8 – 565.9) was associated with TgAbs. CONCLUSIONS: Subclinical thyroid autoimmunity is not rare. Environmental, genetic, and immunological factors as well as ancestry are associated risk factors. These results will facilitate the implementation of screening strategies in order to provide timely diagnosis and treatment. 2018-09-04 2018-09-06T16:39:12Z info:eu-repo/semantics/bachelorThesis info:eu-repo/semantics/acceptedVersion http://repository.urosario.edu.co/handle/10336/18449 spa Atribución-NoComercial-SinDerivadas 2.5 Colombia Atribución-NoComercial-SinDerivadas 2.5 Colombia http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/2.5/co/ info:eu-repo/semantics/openAccess application/pdf Universidad del Rosario Facultad de medicina reponame:Repositorio Institucional EdocUR instname:Universidad del Rosario Chaker L, Bianco AC, Jonklaas J, Peeters RP. Hypothyroidism. Lancet. 2017 Sep;390(10101):1550–62. Duntas LH. Thyroid Disease and Lipids. Thyroid. 2002 Apr;12(4):287–93. Cappola AR, Ladenson PW. Hypothyroidism and Atherosclerosis. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2003 Jun;88(6):2438–44. Parle J V, Maisonneuve P, Sheppard MC, Boyle P, Franklyn J a. Prediction of all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in elderly people from one low serum thyrotropin result: a 10-year cohort study. Lancet. 2001 Sep;358(9285):861–5. De Leo S, Lee SY, Braverman LE. Hyperthyroidism. Lancet. 2016 Aug;388(10047):906–18. Garmendia Madariaga A, Santos Palacios S, Guillén-Grima F, Galofré JC. The Incidence and Prevalence of Thyroid Dysfunction in Europe: A Meta-Analysis. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2014 Mar;99(3):923–31. Hollowell JG, Staehling NW, Flanders WD, Hannon WH, Gunter EW, Spencer CA, et al. Serum TSH, T 4 , and Thyroid Antibodies in the United States Population (1988 to 1994): National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III). J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2002 Feb;87(2):489–99. Jacobson DL, Gange SJ, Rose NR, Graham NMH. Epidemiology and Estimated Population Burden of Selected Autoimmune Diseases in the United States. Clin Immunol Immunopathol. 1997 Sep;84(3):223–43. Pearce SHS, Leech NJ. Toward Precise Forecasting of Autoimmune Endocrinopathy. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2004 Feb;89(2):544–7. Zöphel K, Saller B, Wunderlich G, Grüning T, Koch R, Wilde J, et al. Autoantibodies to thyroperoxidase (TPOAb) in a large population of euthyroid subjects: implications for the definition of TPOAb reference intervals. Clin Lab. 2003;49(11–12):591–600. Vanderpump MP, Tunbridge WM, French JM, Appleton D, Bates D, Clark F, et al. The incidence of thyroid disorders in the community: a twenty-year follow-up of the Whickham Survey. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 1995 Jul;43(1):55–68. Konno N, Yuri K, Taguchi H, Miura K, Taguchi S, Hagiwara K, et al. Screening for thyroid diseases in an iodine sufficient area with sensitive thyrotrophin assays, and serum thyroid autoantibody and urinary iodide determinations. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 1993 Mar;38(3):273–81. Prentice LM, Phillips DI, Sarsero D, Beever K, McLachlan SM, Smith BR. Geographical distribution of subclinical autoimmune thyroid disease in Britain: a study using highly sensitive direct assays for autoantibodies to thyroglobulin and thyroid peroxidase. Acta Endocrinol (Copenh). 1990 Nov;123(5):493–8. Bjoro T, Holmen J, Krüger O, Midthjell K, Hunstad K, Schreiner T, et al. Prevalence of thyroid disease, thyroid dysfunction and thyroid peroxidase antibodies in a large, unselected population. The Health Study of Nord-Trondelag (HUNT). Eur J Endocrinol. 2000 Nov;143(5):639–47. Pedersen IB, Knudsen N, Jørgensen T, Perrild H, Ovesen L, Laurberg P. Thyroid peroxidase and thyroglobulin autoantibodies in a large survey of populations with mild and moderate iodine deficiency. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2003 Jan;58(1):36–42. Tunbridge WM, Evered DC, Hall R, Appleton D, Brewis M, Clark F, et al. The spectrum of thyroid disease in a community: the Whickham survey. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 1977 Dec;7(6):481–93. Li Y, Teng D, Shan Z, Teng X, Guan H, Yu X, et al. Antithyroperoxidase and Antithyroglobulin Antibodies in a Five-Year Follow-Up Survey of Populations with Different Iodine Intakes. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2008 May;93(5):1751–7. Sheu JJ, Kang JH, Lin HC, Lin HC. Hyperthyroidism and Risk of Ischemic Stroke in Young Adults: A 5-Year Follow-Up Study. Stroke. 2010 May 1;41(5):961–6. Ross DS, Neer RM, Chester Ridgway E, Daniels GH. Subclinical Hyperthyroidism and reduced bone density as a possible result of prolonged suppression of the pituitary-thyroid axis with L-Thyroxine. Am J Med. 1987 Jun;82(6):1167–70. Franco J-S, Amaya-Amaya J, Molano-González N, Caro-Moreno J, Rodríguez-Jiménez M, Acosta-Ampudia Y, et al. Autoimmune thyroid disease in Colombian patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2015 Dec;83(6):943–50. Anaya J-M. The autoimmune tautology. A summary of evidence. Jt Bone Spine. 2017 May;84(3):251–3. Mariotti S, Sansoni P, Barbesino G, Caturegli P, Monti D, Cossarizza A, et al. Thyroid and other organ-specific autoantibodies in healthy centenarians. Lancet (London, England). 1992 Jun 20;339(8808):1506–8. Anaya J-M. The autoimmune tautology. A summary of evidence. Jt Bone Spine. 2017 May;84(3):251–3. Brent GA. Environmental exposures and autoimmune thyroid disease. Thyroid. 2010 Jul;20(7):755–61. ngbar SH B LE, editor. The thyroid a fundamental and clinical text. Historical resume. In: 5th editio. Philadelphia: Lippincott; 1986. p. 3–6. S. Werner. Historical resume. In: Ingbar SH. Braverman LE., editor. The thyroid a fundamental and clinical text. 5th editio. Philadelphia; Lippincott; 1986. p. 3–6. Mario De Felice and Roberto Di Lauro. Anatomy and Development of the Thyroid. In: Jameson J. Larry, editor. Endocrinology Adult and pediatric. 7th editio. 2016. p. 1257–77. Kopp P. Thyroid hormone synthesis: thyroid iodine metabolism. In: RD BLU, editor. Werner & Ingbar’s the thyroid: a fundamental and clinical text. 9th ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins; 2005. p. 52–76. Mizukami Y, Michigishi T, Kawato M, Sato T, Nonomura A, Hashimoto T, et al. Chronic thyroiditis: thyroid function and histologic correlations in 601 cases. Hum Pathol. 1992 Sep;23(9):980–8. Smith TJ, Hegedüs L. Graves’ Disease. Longo DL, editor. N Engl J Med. 2016 Oct 20;375(16):1552–65. Prummel MF, Wiersinga WM. Thyroid peroxidase autoantibodies in euthyroid subjects. Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2005 Mar;19(1):1–15. MARIOTTI S, CATUREGLI P, PICCOLO P, BARBESINO G, PINCHERA A. Antithyroid Peroxidase Autoantibodies in Thyroid Diseases*. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1990 Sep;71(3):661–9. Fenouillet E, Fayet G, Hovsepian S, Bahraoui EM, Ronin C. Immunochemical evidence for a role of complex carbohydrate chains in thyroglobulin antigenicity. J Biol Chem. 1986 Nov 15;261(32):15153–8. Parkes AB, McLachlan SM, Bird P, Rees Smith B. The distribution of microsomal and thyroglobulin antibody activity among the IgG subclasses. Clin Exp Immunol. 1984 Jul;57(1):239–43. Iddah MA, Macharia BN. Autoimmune Thyroid Disorders. ISRN Endocrinol. 2013;2013:1–9. Ericsson U-B, Christensen SB, Thorell JI. A high prevalence of thyroglobulin autoantibodies in adults with and without thyroid disease as measured with a sensitive solid-phase immunosorbent radioassay. Clin Immunol Immunopathol. 1985 Nov;37(2):154–62. Stathatos N, Daniels GH. Autoimmune thyroid disease. Curr Opin Rheumatol. 2012 Jan;24(1):70–5. Effraimidis G, Wiersinga WM. MECHANISMS IN ENDOCRINOLOGY: Autoimmune thyroid disease: old and new players. Eur J Endocrinol. 2014 May 17;170(6):R241–52. Antonelli A, Ferrari SM, Corrado A, Di Domenicantonio A, Fallahi P. Autoimmune thyroid disorders. Autoimmun Rev. 2015 Feb;14(2):174–80. Tomer Y, Davies TF. Searching for the Autoimmune Thyroid Disease Susceptibility Genes: From Gene Mapping to Gene Function. Endocr Rev. 2003 Oct;24(5):694–717. Brix TH, Hegedüs L. Twin studies as a model for exploring the aetiology of autoimmune thyroid disease. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2012 Apr;76(4):457–64. Hansen PS, Brix TH, Iachine I, Kyvik KO, Hegedus L. The relative importance of genetic and environmental effects for the early stages of thyroid autoimmunity: a study of healthy Danish twins. Eur J Endocrinol. 2006;154(1):29–38. Brand OJ, Barrett JC, Simmonds MJ, Newby PR, McCabe CJ, Bruce CK, et al. Association of the thyroid stimulating hormone receptor gene (TSHR) with Graves’ disease. Hum Mol Genet. 2009;18(9):1704–13. Ban Y, Tozaki T, Taniyama M, Skrabanek L, Nakano Y, Ban Y, et al. Multiple SNPs in intron 41 of thyroglobulin gene are associated with autoimmune thyroid disease in the Japanese population. PLoS One. 2012;7(5):3–7. Jacobson EM, Tomer Y. The CD40, CTLA-4, thyroglobulin, TSH receptor, and PTPN22 gene quintet and its contribution to thyroid autoimmunity: Back to the future. J Autoimmun. 2007;28(2–3):85–98. Siminovitch KA. PTPN22 and autoimmune disease. Nat Genet. 2004 Dec 1;36:1248. Scalapino KJ, Daikh DI. CTLA-4: a key regulatory point in the control of autoimmune disease. Immunol Rev. 2008 Jun;223:143–55. Gough SCL, Simmonds MJ. The HLA Region and Autoimmune Disease: Associations and Mechanisms of Action. Curr Genomics. 2007 Nov;8(7):453–65. Hodge SE, Ban Y, Strug LJ, Greenberg DA, Davies TF, Concepcion ES, et al. Possible interaction between HLA-DRbeta1 and thyroglobulin variants in Graves’ disease. Thyroid. 2006 Apr;16(4):351–5. Simmonds MJ. GWAS in autoimmune thyroid disease: redefining our understanding of pathogenesis. Nat Rev Endocrinol. 2013;9(5):277–87. Pedersen IB, Knudsen N, Carle A, Vejbjerg P, Jorgensen T, Perrild H, et al. A cautious iodization programme bringing iodine intake to a low recommended level is associated with an increase in the prevalence of thyroid autoantibodies in the population. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2011 Jul;75(1):120–6. Bartalena L, Marcocci C, Tanda ML, Manetti L, Dell’Unto E, Bartolomei MP, et al. Cigarette smoking and treatment outcomes in Graves ophthalmopathy. Ann Intern Med. 1998 Oct 15;129(8):632–5. Prummel MF, Wiersinga WM. Smoking and risk of Graves’ disease. JAMA. 1993 Jan 27;269(4):479–82. Asvold BO, Bjoro T, Nilsen TIL, Vatten LJ. Tobacco smoking and thyroid function: a population-based study. Arch Intern Med. 2007 Jul;167(13):1428–32. Hewison M. An update on vitamin D and human immunity. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2012 Mar;76(3):315–25. Kawashima A, Tanigawa K, Akama T, Yoshihara A, Ishii N, Suzuki K. Innate immune activation and thyroid autoimmunity. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2011 Dec;96(12):3661–71. Roura-Mir C, Catalfamo M, Cheng T-Y, Marqusee E, Besra GS, Jaraquemada D, et al. CD1a and CD1c activate intrathyroidal T cells during Graves’ disease and Hashimoto’s thyroiditis. J Immunol. 2005 Mar;174(6):3773–80. Quadbeck B, Eckstein AK, Tews S, Walz M, Hoermann R, Mann K, et al. Maturation of thyroidal dendritic cells in Graves’ disease. Scand J Immunol. 2002 Jun;55(6):612–20. Leskela S, Serrano A, de la Fuente H, Rodriguez-Munoz A, Ramos-Levi A, Sampedro-Nunez M, et al. Graves’ disease is associated with a defective expression of the immune regulatory molecule galectin-9 in antigen-presenting dendritic cells. PLoS One. 2015;10(4):e0123938. Leskela S, Rodriguez-Munoz A, de la Fuente H, Figueroa-Vega N, Bonay P, Martin P, et al. Plasmacytoid dendritic cells in patients with autoimmune thyroid disease. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2013 Jul;98(7):2822–33. Mazziotti G, Sorvillo F, Naclerio C, Farzati A, Cioffi M, Perna R, et al. Type-1 response in peripheral CD4+ and CD8+ T cells from patients with Hashimoto’s thyroiditis. Eur J Endocrinol. 2003 Apr;148(4):383–8. Eshaghkhani Y, Sanati MH, Nakhjavani M, Safari R, Khajavi A, Ataei M, et al. Disturbed Th1 and Th2 balance in patients with Graves’ disease. Minerva Endocrinol. 2016 Mar;41(1):28–36. Ramos-Levi AM, Marazuela M. Pathogenesis of thyroid autoimmune disease: the role of cellular mechanisms. Endocrinol Nutr. 2016 Oct;63(8):421–9. Zhu C, Ma J, Liu Y, Tong J, Tian J, Chen J, et al. Increased Frequency of Follicular Helper T Cells in Patients with Autoimmune Thyroid Disease. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2012 Mar 1;97(3):943–50. Glick AB, Wodzinski A, Fu P, Levine AD, Wald DN. Impairment of regulatory T-cell function in autoimmune thyroid disease. Thyroid. 2013 Jul;23(7):871–8. Franco J-S, Molano-González N, Rodríguez-Jiménez M, Acosta-Ampudia Y, Mantilla RD, Amaya-Amaya J, et al. The Coexistence of Antiphospholipid Syndrome and Systemic Lupus Erythematosus in Colombians. Crispin J, editor. PLoS One. 2014 Oct;9(10):e110242. Vásquez-Awad, D., Cano-Gutiérrez, C. A., Gómez-Ortiz, A., González, M. Ángel, Guzmán-Moreno, R., Martínez-Reyes, J. I., Rosero-Olarte, O., Rueda-Beltz, C., & Acosta-Reyes JL. Vitamina D. Consenso colombiano de expertos. Rev Med. 2017;39(2):140–57. Rojas M, Rodriguez Y, Pacheco Y, Zapata E, Monsalve DM, Mantilla RD, et al. Resilience in women with autoimmune rheumatic diseases. Joint Bone Spine. 2017 Dec; Tunbridge WM, Brewis M, French JM, Appleton D, Bird T, Clark F, et al. Natural history of autoimmune thyroiditis. Br Med J (Clin Res Ed). 1981 Jan 24;282(6260):258–62. Burek CL, Rose NR, Guire KE, Hoffman WH. Thyroid autoantibodies in black and in white children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus and their first degree relatives. Autoimmunity. 1990;7(2–3):157–67. McLeod DSA, Caturegli P, Cooper DS, Matos PG, Hutfless S. Variation in rates of autoimmune thyroid disease by race/ethnicity in US military personnel. JAMA. 2014 Apr;311(15):1563–5. Tomer Y, Ban Y, Concepcion E, Barbesino G, Villanueva R, Greenberg DA, et al. Common and unique susceptibility loci in Graves and Hashimoto diseases: results of whole-genome screening in a data set of 102 multiplex families. Am J Hum Genet. 2003 Oct;73(4):736–47. Sakai K, Shirasawa S, Ishikawa N, Ito K, Tamai H, Kuma K, et al. Identification of susceptibility loci for autoimmune thyroid disease to 5q31-q33 and Hashimoto’s thyroiditis to 8q23-q24 by multipoint affected sib-pair linkage analysis in Japanese. Hum Mol Genet. 2001 Jun;10(13):1379–86. Tomer Y, Greenberg DA, Concepcion E, Ban Y, Davies TF. Thyroglobulin is a thyroid specific gene for the familial autoimmune thyroid diseases. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2002 Jan;87(1):404–7. Vestergaard P. Smoking and thyroid disorders--a meta-analysis. Eur J Endocrinol. 2002 Feb;146(2):153–61. Carle A, Bulow Pedersen I, Knudsen N, Perrild H, Ovesen L, Banke Rasmussen L, et al. Smoking cessation is followed by a sharp but transient rise in the incidence of overt autoimmune hypothyroidism - a population-based, case-control study. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2012 Nov;77(5):764–72. Belin RM, Astor BC, Powe NR, Ladenson PW. Smoke exposure is associated with a lower prevalence of serum thyroid autoantibodies and thyrotropin concentration elevation and a higher prevalence of mild thyrotropin concentration suppression in the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Surve. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2004 Dec;89(12):6077–86. Tracey KJ. Physiology and immunology of the cholinergic antiinflammatory pathway. J Clin Invest. 2007 Feb;117(2):289–96. Bencherif M, Lippiello PM, Lucas R, Marrero MB. Alpha7 nicotinic receptors as novel therapeutic targets for inflammation-based diseases. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2011 Mar;68(6):931–49. Karaconji IB. Facts about nicotine toxicity. Arh Hig Rada Toksikol. 2005 Dec;56(4):363–71. Benowitz NL. Nicotine addiction. N Engl J Med. 2010 Jun;362(24):2295–303. Caturegli P, De Remigis A, Ferlito M, Landek-Salgado MA, Iwama S, Tzou S-C, et al. Anatabine ameliorates experimental autoimmune thyroiditis. Endocrinology. 2012 Sep;153(9):4580–7. Schmeltz LR, Blevins TC, Aronoff SL, Ozer K, Leffert JD, Goldberg MA, et al. Anatabine supplementation decreases thyroglobulin antibodies in patients with chronic lymphocytic autoimmune (Hashimoto’s) thyroiditis: a randomized controlled clinical trial. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2014 Jan;99(1):E137-42. Hersey P, Prendergast D, Edwards A. Effects of cigarette smoking on the immune system. Follow-up studies in normal subjects after cessation of smoking. Med J Aust. 1983 Oct;2(9):425–9. Pearce EN, Braverman LE. Environmental pollutants and the thyroid. Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2009 Dec;23(6):801–13. Dankers W, Colin EM, van Hamburg JP, Lubberts E. Vitamin D in Autoimmunity: Molecular Mechanisms and Therapeutic Potential. Front Immunol. 2016 Jan 20;7:697. Welsh P, Peters MJL, Sattar N. Vitamin D insufficiency. Vol. 364, The New England journal of medicine. United States; 2011. p. 1378–9; author reply 1380. Baeke F, Takiishi T, Korf H, Gysemans C, Mathieu C. Vitamin D: modulator of the immune system. Curr Opin Pharmacol. 2010 Aug;10(4):482–96. Xu H, Soruri A, Gieseler RK, Peters JH. 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 exerts opposing effects to IL-4 on MHC class-II antigen expression, accessory activity, and phagocytosis of human monocytes. Scand J Immunol. 1993 Dec;38(6):535–40. Martineau AR, Wilkinson KA, Newton SM, Floto RA, Norman AW, Skolimowska K, et al. IFN-gamma- and TNF-independent vitamin D-inducible human suppression of mycobacteria: the role of cathelicidin LL-37. J Immunol. 2007 Jun;178(11):7190–8. Pedersen AW, Holmstrom K, Jensen SS, Fuchs D, Rasmussen S, Kvistborg P, et al. Phenotypic and functional markers for 1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3)-modified regulatory dendritic cells. Clin Exp Immunol. 2009 Jul;157(1):48–59. Lacka K, Maciejewski A. [Vitamin D in the etiopathogenesis of autoimmune thyroiditis]. Pol Merkur Lekarski. 2013 May;34(203):281–5. Mazokopakis EE, Kotsiris DA. Hashimoto’s autoimmune thyroiditis and vitamin D deficiency. Current aspects. Hell J Nucl Med. 2014;17(1):37–40. Chen W, Lin H, Wang M. Immune intervention effects on the induction of experimental autoimmune thyroiditis. J Huazhong Univ Sci Technol Med Sci = Hua zhong ke ji da xue xue bao Yi xue Ying wen ban = Huazhong keji daxue xuebao Yixue Yingdewen ban. 2002;22(4):343–345,354. Misharin A, Hewison M, Chen C-R, Lagishetty V, Aliesky HA, Mizutori Y, et al. Vitamin D deficiency modulates Graves’ hyperthyroidism induced in BALB/c mice by thyrotropin receptor immunization. Endocrinology. 2009 Feb;150(2):1051–60. Bae S-C, Lee YH. Vitamin D level and risk of systemic lupus erythematosus and rheumatoid arthritis: a Mendelian randomization. Clin Rheumatol. 2018 Sep;37(9):2415–21. Clozel M, Branchaud CL, Tannenbaum GS, Dussault JH, Aranda J V. Effect of caffeine on thyroid and pituitary function in newborn rats. Pediatr Res. 1983 Jul;17(7):592–5. Vaidya B, Kendall-Taylor P, Pearce SHS. The Genetics of Autoimmune Thyroid Disease. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2002 Dec 1;87(12):5385–97. Boelaert K, Newby PR, Simmonds MJ, Holder RL, Carr-Smith JD, Heward JM, et al. Prevalence and relative risk of other autoimmune diseases in subjects with autoimmune thyroid disease. Am J Med. 2010 Feb;123(2):183.e1-9.
score 11,828437